On October 18, 1995, ESA council slashed the length of the Columbus module to 6.7 meters, or half of its original size. The space shuttle is the world's first reusable spacecraft, and the first spacecraft in history that can carry large satellites both to and from orbit. The orbiter vehicle reoriented itself to a nose-forward position with a 40° angle-of-attack, and the forward reaction control system (RCS) jets were emptied of fuel and disabled prior to reentry. This area houses the pressurized crew module In January 1971, NASA and Air Force leadership decided that a reusable delta-wing orbiter mounted on an expendable propellant tank would be the optimal design for the Space Shuttle. Each seat has manual flight controls, including rotation :II-86 To limit the fuel consumption while the orbiter was docked at the ISS, the Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS) was developed to convert and transfer station power to the orbiter. reusable . Each SRB measures 45.5 meters in length and 3.6 meters in diameter. After the loss of Challenger, NASA resumed production of Endeavour in September 1987. The displays and controls on the left are for operating the orbiter, :III–264 During its tenure, the Space Shuttle served as the only U.S. vehicle to launch astronauts, of which there was no replacement until the launch of Crew Dragon Demo-2 on May 30, 2020. The shuttle court is 44 feet long. Dimensions: Length, 9.64 meters; beam, 5.82 meters; height, 3.35 meters; Mass: 19.73 metric tonnes (unloaded) The type-10 terminology is also used in Star Trek: Starship Spotter. The Space Shuttle fleet's total mission time was 1322 days, 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds.. The orbiter vehicle's reentry was defined as starting at an altitude 120 km (400,000 ft), when it was traveling approximately Mach 25. The U.S. relied on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to transport astronauts to the ISS from the last Shuttle flight until the first Commercial Crew Development launch on November 2020. Its casing consisted of 11 steel sections which made up its four main segments. From that position the Space Shuttle waits for clearance from Mission Control to continue. Ground control engineers had made three separate requests for high-resolution images taken by the Department of Defense that would have provided an understanding of the extent of the damage, while NASA's chief TPS engineer requested that astronauts on board Columbia be allowed to leave the vehicle to inspect the damage. or EVA. The spaceplane design of the orbiter limited the abort options, as the abort scenarios required the controlled flight of the orbiter to a runway or to allow the crew to egress individually, rather than the abort escape options on the Apollo and Soyuz space capsules. A second SCA (N911NA) was acquired in 1988, and was first used to transport Endeavour from the factory to the KSC. nose gear wheel well and doors. The orbiter vehicle maneuvered to an upside down, tail first orientation and began a 2-4 minute OMS burn approximately 20 minutes before it reentered the atmosphere.  The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory argued that a straight-wing design would not be able to withstand the high thermal and aerodynamic stresses during reentry, and would not provide the required cross-range capability. During its 35 years in service, it was used for a multitude of purposes, ranging from egress training to familiarizing astronauts with the lighting conditions in the 60-foot long (18 meters) cargo bay. The on-orbit operations, such as experiments, payload deployment, and EVAs, were conducted primarily by the mission specialists who were specifically trained for their intended missions and systems. After achieving orbit, the crew would switch some of the GPCs functions from guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) to systems management (SM) and payload (PL) to support the operational mission. airlock allows two crewmen room for changing spacesuits. :III–12 Its hull, measuring 16.3 meters in length, 19.7 meters wide and 7.5 meters in height, was constructed of conventional composite construction, with a ceramic and composite outer skin. The The original main combustion chamber operated at a maximum pressure of 226.5 bar (3,285 psi). in the payload bay, a docking module and a transfer tunnel with The SLWT weighed 3,400 kg (7,500 lb) less than the LWT, which allowed the Space Shuttle to deliver heavy elements to ISS's high inclination orbit. The giant cylinder, higher than a 15-story building, with a length of 154-feet (47-meters) and a diameter of 27.5-feet (8.4-meters), is the largest single piece of the Space Shuttle. :421–422, The ET provided propellant to the Space Shuttle Main Engines from liftoff until main engine cutoff. SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER . :III–10, The type of mission that the Space Shuttle was assigned to dictated the type of orbit that it entered. Further research determined that the foam itself was sufficiently protected, and the ET was no longer covered in latex paint beginning on STS-3. :178–179, The Space Shuttle was the first operational orbital spacecraft designed for reuse. bay and an airlock. But this was with the mapping camera attached at front, and … :III–9, At T+4 seconds, when the Space Shuttle reached an altitude of 22 meters (73 ft), the RS-25 engines were throttled up to 104.5%. The craft is 11 meters in length, 8 meters in width, and about 15,400 kg. On July 4, 1982, STS-4, flown by Ken Mattingly and Henry Hartsfield, landed on a concrete runway at Edwards AFB. :II-210 A light-weight tank (LWT) was first flown on STS-6, which reduced tank weight by 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). :164 The technical decisions that dictated the orbiter's return and reuse reduced the per-launch payload capabilities with the intention of lowering the per-launch costs and resulting in a high-launch rate. The SRBs were jettisoned before the vehicle reached orbit, and the ET was jettisoned just before orbit insertion, which used the orbiter's two Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engines. During the 1950s, the United States Air Force proposed using a reusable piloted glider to perform military operations such as reconnaissance, satellite attack, and air-to-ground weapons employment. The OMS engines were used after main engine cut-off (MECO) for orbital insertion. SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER . Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters are the largest solid propellant motors used for space flight. Solid Rocket Booster set on display at the KSC visitor center (Photos: Richard Kruse, 2009) provides access for spacewalks, known as extravehicular activity, The LH2 comprised the bulk of the ET, and was 29 m (96.7 ft) tall. It is bisected by a net 2 feet, 6 inches wide, the top of which is suspended 5 feet from the surface of the court at the centerline. the forward fuselage of the orbiter vehicle. The speed brake was used to keep a continuous speed, and crew initiated a pre-flare maneuver to a -1.5° glideslope at an altitude of 610 m (2,000 ft). While the Space Shuttle was under detailed development and fabrication, we at the ... assembled in space. During launch, the ET also acts as a backbone for the orbiter and solid rocket boosters. The outboard antenna, which remained in its stowed position atop the mast, was then slowly flipped over the end of the mast into its operation position. :148, On February 1, 2003, Columbia disintegrated during re-entry, killing all seven of the STS-107 crew, because of damage to the carbon-carbon leading edge of the wing caused during launch. The bay, 18.3 m long and 4.6 m wide (60 ft by 15 ft), has payload attachment points along its full length, and is adaptable enough to accommodate as many as five unmanned spacecraft of various sizes and shapes in one mission. It is one of the longest runways in the world, at 4,572 m (15,000 ft), and is 91.4 meters (300 ft) wide. The instrument panels contained over 2,100 displays and controls, and the commander and pilot were both equipped with a heads-up display (HUD) and a Rotational Hand Controller (RHC) to gimbal the engines during powered flight and fly the orbiter during unpowered flight. The GPCs also controlled the multiple aerobraking S-turns, using only the roll axis, to dissipate excess speed without changing the angle-of-attack. The Space Shuttle, and fictitious variants, have been featured in numerous movies. The solid-propellant motor comprised the majority of the SRB's structure.  Early safety analyses advertised by NASA engineers and management predicted the chance of a catastrophic failure resulting in the death of the crew as ranging from 1 in 100 launches to as rare as 1 in 100,000. This is a cutaway illustration of the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) with callouts. A final flare maneuver reduced the orbiter vehicle's descent rate to 0.9 m/s (3 ft/s), with touchdown occurring at 100–150 m/s (195–295 kn), depending on the weight of the orbiter vehicle. Astronauts entered the Spacelab module through a 2.7 m (8.72 ft) or 5.8 m (18.88 ft) tunnel that connected to the airlock. The ET continued on a ballistic trajectory and broke up during reentry, with some small pieces landing in the Indian or Pacific Ocean. During the design of the Space Shuttle, the Phase B proposals were not as cheap as the initial Phase A estimates indicated; Space Shuttle program manager Robert Thompson acknowledged that reducing cost-per-pound was not the primary objective of the further design phases, as other technical requirements could not be met with the reduced costs.
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